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Additional letters

Regional variations

  • Maghrebi variation of standard letter (as a rule, dotless in isolated and final positions and dotted in the initial and medial forms

    Additional modified letters, used in non-Arabic languages, or in Arabic for transliterating names, loanwords, spoken dialects only, include:

  • Sometimes used for writing names, loanwords and dialects

  • - Ve, (not to be confused with ) used in Kurdish language when written in Arabic script and sometimes used in Arabic language to represent the sound /v/ when transliterating names and loanwords in Arabic. Also used in writing dialects with that sound.[6] Usually the letter is used to transliterate /v/. Also used as pa in the Jawi script. The phoneme /v/ in Tunisia and some other regions of Maghreb is rendered using

  • - Pe, used to represent the phoneme /p/ in Persian, Urdu, and Kurdish; sometimes used in Arabic language when transliterating names and loanwords, although Arabic mostly substitutes /b/ for /p/ in the transliteration of names and loanwords. So, "7up" can be transcribed as

  • It is used in Persian, Urdu, and Kurdish and sometimes used when transliterating names and loanwords in Arabic. In the Iraqi spoken dialect it may be used, especially when referring in the feminine, although it is rarely written, as well as rarely used in the Maghrebi spelling. Nevertheless, Arabic usually substitutes other letters in the transliteration of names and loanwords: normally the combination is used to transliterate the , as in "Chad". In Egypt is used for , which is approximated to [?]). In Israel, it's used to render /g/ in Arabic language, for example on roadsigns.

  • Ca in the Jawi script.

  • - Gaf, represents a voiced velar plosive [g] in informal Moroccan Arabic, as well as officially to transliterate [g] in many city names such as Agadir , and family names such as El Guerrouj .

  • - a Maghrebi letter, sometimes used for [g] (not to be confused with ). In Tunisia it is sometimes used to represent the phoneme /g/. In final and isolate form it has the form which resembles the letterqaf whence it is derived.


  • For more articles on the Arabic alphabet , click here.


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